EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PROCREATION BY DR ZBIGNIEW HALAT Infertility

Definition of procreation -  the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring whom parents guarantee safe and optimal development from conception until their children achieve full independence.

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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PROCREATION
BY DR Z HALAT
MEDICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSULTANT, NOXOLOGIST

Infertility
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2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Definition of  Primary Infertility

Primary infertility is defined as the absence of a live birth for women who desire a child and have been in a union for at least five years, during which they have not used any contraceptives.
The prevalence of primary infertility is calculated as the number of women in an infertile union divided by the number of women in both infertile and fertile unions, where women in a fertile union have successfully had at least one live birth and have been in the union for at least five years at the time of the survey.

Estimated Age-standardized Prevalence of Primary Infertility among child-seeking women aged 20-44 years who had the chance of pregnancy while in the union for at least 5 years, Year 1990 -  Page 2


Estimated Age-standardized Prevalence of Primary Infertility among child-seeking women aged 20-44 years who had the chance of pregnancy while in the union for at least 5 years, Year 2010 -  Page 4


Difference between the two: Increase / Decrease of Primary Infertiliy over 20 years - Page 6



Definition of  Secondary Infertility

Secondary infertility is defined as the absence of a live birth for women who desire a child and have been in a union for at least five years since their last live birth, during which they did not use any contraceptives.

The prevalence of secondary infertility is calculated as the number of women in an infertile union divided by the combined number of women in infertile and fertile unions. Women in a fertile union have successfully had at least one live birth in the past five years and, at the time of the survey, have been in a union for at least five years following their first birth.


Estimated Age-standardized Prevalence of Secondary Infertility among child-seeking women aged 20-44 years who had the chance of pregnancy while in the union for at least 5 years Year 1990 -  Page 3

Estimated Age-standardized Prevalence of Secondary Infertility among child-seeking women aged 20-44 years who had the chance of pregnancy while in the union for at least 5 years Year 2010 -  Page 5

Difference between the two: Increase / Decrease of Secondary Infertility over 20 years - Page 7


Differences between Primary Infertility and Secondary Infertility in one year

Difference between Primary Infertility and Secondary Infertility in the year 1990 - Page 8


Difference between Primary Infertility and Secondary Infertiliy in the year 2010 - Page 9



Source of Definitions and Numerical Data:

National, Regional, and Global Trends in Infertility Prevalence Since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of 277 Health Surveys, Maya N. Mascarenhas Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America Seth R. Flaxman Machine Learning Department, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America Seth R. Flaxman School of Public Policy and Management, H. John Heinz III College, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America Ties Boerma, Gretchen A. Stevens Department of Health Statistics and Information Systems, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Sheryl Vanderpoel Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; PLoS Med 9(12): e1001356. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001356, Received: July 27, 2012; Accepted: November 7, 2012; Published:  December 18, 2012; Funding: This study was partially funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Subcontract No. 498744 of the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study (University of Washington). The results in this paper are prepared independently of the final estimates of the Global Burden of  Disease study. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. TB, SV, and GAS are are staff members of the World Health Organization. The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication and they do not necessarily represent the decisions, policy, or views of the World Health Organization.